A data object is defined as a coherent, self-contained piece of information suitable for automated processing. An application function operates on a data object. A data object may be communicated via interactions and used or produced by application services. It should be a useful, self-contained piece of information with a clear meaning to the business, not just to the application level. Typical examples of data objects are a customer record, a client database, or an insurance claim. A data object can be accessed by an application function, application interaction, or application service. A data object may realize a business object, and may be realized by an artifact. A data object may have association, specialization, aggregation, or composition relationships with other data objects. The name of a data object should preferably be a noun.